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4 Steps That Will Help You Find a Good Move in Almost Any Chess Position! You are here: Home > Tactics > 4 Steps to find Good Moves Important note: This article gives you an overview of the important things you should be thinking about when you want to find good moves in your chess games.


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Part of a Left to right: whiteblackblackwhiteblackwhite Years active c.
Random chance None Skill s requiredChess is a two-player played on a checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
The game is played by millions of people worldwide.
Chess is believed to be derived from the Indian game sometime before the 7th century.
Chaturanga is also the likely ancestor of the strategy games, and.
Chess reached Europe by the 9th century, due to the.
The pieces assumed their current powers in Spain in the late 15th century; the modern rules were standardized in the 19th century.
Each player begins with 16 : oneonetwotwotwoand eight.
Each piece type differently, with the most powerful being the queen and the least powerful the pawn.
The objective is to the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture.
To this end, a player's pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, while supporting each other.
During the game, play typically involves pieces for the opponent's similar pieces, and finding and engineering opportunities to trade advantageously or to get a better position.
In addition to checkmate, a player wins the game if the opponentor in a timed game runs out of time.
There are also several ways that a game can end in a.
The first generally recognized, claimed his title in 1886.
Since 1948, the World Championship has been regulated by the FIDEthe game's international governing body.
FIDE also awards life-time to skilled players, the highest of which is GM.
Many national chess organizations have a title system of their own.
FIDE also organizes thethethetheand thea popular competition among international teams.
FIDE is a member of thewhich can be considered as a recognition of chess as a.
Several national sporting bodies e.
Chess was included in the 2006 and 2010.
There is also a and a.
Online chess has opened amateur and professional competition to a wide and varied group of players.
Since the second half of the 20th century, have been programmed to play with increasing success, to the point where the strongest programs play at a higher level than the best human players.
Since the 1990s, computer analysis has contributed significantly toparticularly in the.
The IBM computer was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion in a match when it in 1997.
The rise of strong chess engines runnable on hand-held devices has led to increasing concerns about during tournaments.
There are many that utilize different rules, pieces, or boards.
One of these,has gained widespread find chess games position as well as some FIDE recognition.
Rules published by national governing bodies, or by unaffiliated chess organizations, commercial publishers, etc.
FIDE's rules were most recently revised in 2017.
Setup Initial position, first bottom row: rook, knight, bishop, queen, king, bishop, knight, and rook; second row: excellent free 3d battle chess game download Tell Setup at the start of a game By convention, chess are divided into sets.
Each set consists of 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights, and eight pawns.
The pieces are set out as shown in the and photo.
The players of the sets are referred to as White and Black, respectively.
The game is played on a square of eight rows calleddenoted 1 to 8 from bottom to top according to White's perspective and eight columns calleddenoted a to h from left to right according to White's perspective.
The 64 squares alternate in color and are referred to as light and dark squares.
The chessboard is placed with a light square at the right-hand end of the rank nearest to each player.
Thus, each queen starts on a square of its own color the white queen on a light square; the black queen on a dark square.
Movement In competitive games, the colors are allocated by the organizers; in informal games, the colors are usually decided randomly, for example by coin toss, or by one player's concealing a white and black pawn in either hand and having the opponent choose.
The player with the white pieces moves first, after which players alternate turns, moving one piece per turn except forwhen two pieces are moved.
A piece is moved to either an unoccupied square or one occupied by an opponent's piece, which is captured and removed from play.
With the sole exception ofall pieces capture by moving to the square that the opponent's piece occupies.
Moving is compulsory; it is illegal to skip a turn, even when having to move is.
A player may not make any move that would put or leave the player's own king in.
If the player to move has no legal move, the game is over; the result is either a loss for the player with no legal move if the king is in check, or a draw if the king is not.
Each piece has its own way of moving.
In the diagrams, the dots mark the squares to which the piece can move if there are no intervening piece s of either color except the knight, which leaps over any intervening pieces.
The king also has a special move called that involves also moving a rook.
Along with the king, a rook is involved during the king's castling move.
Thus the move forms an "L"-shape: two squares vertically and one square horizontally, or two squares horizontally and one square vertically.
The knight is the only piece that can leap over other pieces.
A pawn has two special moves: the capture and.
Examples of Once in every game, each king can make a special move, known as.
Castling consists of moving the king two squares along the first rank toward a rook that is on the player's first rank and then placing the rook on the last square that the king just crossed.
Note that castling is permitted if the rook is under attack, or if the rook crosses an attacked square.
En passant Examples of pawn moves: left ; right When a pawn makes a two-step advance from its starting position and there is an opponent's pawn on a square next to the destination square on an adjacent file, then the opponent's pawn can capture it en passant "in passing"moving to the square the pawn passed over.
This can only be done on the very next turn, otherwise the right to do so is forfeited.
For example, in the animated diagram, the black pawn advances two steps from g7 to g5, and the white pawn on f5 can take it en passant on g6 but only on White's next move.
Promotion Main article: When a pawn advances to the eighth rank, as a part of the move it is promoted and must be exchanged for the player's choice of queen, rook, bishop, or knight of the same color.
Usually, the pawn is chosen to be promoted to a queen, but in some cases another piece is chosen; this is called.
In thethe pawn on c7 can be advanced to the eighth rank and be promoted.
There is no restriction placed on the piece promoted to, so it is possible to have more pieces of the same type than at the start of the game e.
The black king is in by the rook.
When a king is under immediate attack by one or two of the opponent's pieces, it is said to be in.
A move in response to a check is legal only if it results in a position where the king is no longer in check.
This can involve capturing the checking piece; interposing a piece between the checking piece and the king which is possible only if the attacking piece is a queen, rook, or bishop and there is a square between it and the king ; or moving the king to a square where it is not under attack.
Castling is not a permissible response to a check.
The object of the game is to checkmate the opponent; this occurs when the opponent's king is in check, and there is no legal way to remove it from attack.
It is never legal for a player to make a move that puts or leaves the player's own king in check.
In casual games it is common to announce "check" when putting the opponent's king in check, but this is find chess games position required by the rules of chess, and is not usually done in tournaments.
End of the game Win White is inbeing unable to escape attack by the black bishops.
It is usually considered poor etiquette to play on in a hopeless position, and for this reason high-level games rarely end in checkmate.
Draw Black is not in check and has no legal move.
The correct procedure is to verbally offer the draw, make a move, then start the opponent's clock.
Traditionally, players have been allowed to agree to a draw at any point in the game, occasionally even without playing a move; in recent years efforts have been made to discourage short draws, for example by forbidding draw offers before move thirty.
In this situation, either player can claim a draw; this requires the players to keep a valid written record of the game so that the claim can be verified by the arbiter if challenged.
The three occurrences of the position need not occur on consecutive moves for a claim to be valid.
FIDE rules make no mention of ; this is merely a specific type of draw by threefold repetition.
There are several known endgames where it is possible to force a mate but it requires more than 50 moves before a pawn move or capture is made; examples include some endgames with and some such as queen against two bishops.
Historically, FIDE has sometimes revised the 50-move rule to make exceptions for these endgames, but these have since been repealed.
Some organizations do not enforce the fifty-move rule.
This is a relatively recent 2014 addition to the FIDE rules.
As with the fivefold-repetition rule, this applies independently of claims by the players, and allows a tournament director to intervene.
This rule likewise is a recent addition to the FIDE rules.
On the other hand, if both players have a king and a knight left, there is a highly unlikely yet theoretical possibility of checkmate, so this rule does not apply.
Time control A digital chess clock In competition, chess games are played with a.
If a player's time runs out before the game is completed, the game is automatically lost provided the opponent has to deliver checkmate.
The duration of a game ranges from long or "classical" games which can take up to seven hours even longer if are permitted to under 3 minutes per player for the entire game.
Intermediate between these are games, lasting between 20 minutes and two hours per game, a popular time control in amateur weekend tournaments.
Time is controlled using a that has two displays, one for each player's remaining time.
Analog chess clocks have been largely replaced by digital clocks, which allow for time controls with.
Time controls are also enforced in correspondence chess competition.
A typical time control is 50 days for every 10 moves.
Historythe uncheckered 8×8 board, sometimes with special marks, on which was played Chess is believed to have originated inc.
Thence it spread eastward and westward along the.
The earliest evidence of chess is found in the nearby around 600, where the game came to be known by the name.
Chatrang was taken up by the after the 633—44where it was then namedwith the pieces largely retaining their Persian names.
In Spanish "shatranj" was rendered as ajedrez "al-shatranj"in as xadrez, and in as ζατρίκιον zatrikion, which comes directly from the Persian chatrangbut in the rest of Europe it was replaced by versions of the Persian shāh "king"which was familiar as an exclamation and became the English words "check" and "chess".
The oldest archaeological chess artifacts, ivory pieces, were excavated in ancienttoday'sincentral Asia, and date to about 760, with some of them possibly older.
The oldest known chess manual was in Arabic and dates to 840—850, written by 800—870a renowned Arab chess player, titled Kitab ash-shatranj Book of the chess.
This is a lost manuscript, but referenced in later works.
The eastern migration of chess, into China and Southeast Asia, has even less documentation than its migration west.
Alternatively, some contend that chess arose from Chinese chess or one of its predecessors, although this has been contested.
The game reached Western Europe and Russia by at least three routes, the earliest being in the 9th century.
By the year 1000, it had spread throughout both and.
A Latin poem dated to the late 10th century has been preserved in.
A famous 13th-century manuscript covering shatranj,and is known as the.
These modern rules for the basic moves had been adopted in Italy and Spain.
Pawns gained the option of advancing two squares on their first move, while bishops and queens acquired their modern abilities.
The replaced the earlier chess piece towards the end of the 10th century and by the 15th century had become the most powerful piece; consequently modern chess was referred to as "Queen's Chess" or "Mad Queen Chess".
Castling, derived from the "kings leap" usually in combination with a pawn or rook move to bring the king to safety, was introduced.
These new rules quickly spread throughout western Europe.
A tactical puzzle from 1497 book Writings about the of how to play chess began to appear in the 15th century.
The Repetición de Amores y Arte de Ajedrez Repetition of Love and the Art of Playing Chess by churchman was published in in 1497.
Lucena and later masters like PortugueseItaliansandand Spanish bishop developed elements of and started to analyze simple.
The two most important French masters werea musician by profession, who discovered the importance of pawns for chess strategy, and laterwho won a famous series of matches with the Irish master in 1834.
Centers of chess activity in this period were in major European cities like in Paris and in London.
Also in the 19th century, the convention that White moves first was established formerly either White or Black could move first.
Finally the rules around castling were standardized — variations in the castling rules had persisted in Italy until the late 19th century.
The resulting standard game is sometimes referred to as Western chess or international chess, particularly in Asia where other games of the chess family such as are prevalent.
Since the 19th century, the only rule changes have been technical in nature, for example establishing the correct procedure for claiming a draw by repetition.
As the 19th century progressed, chess organization developed quickly.
Manychess books, and chess journals appeared.
There were correspondence matches between cities; for example, the London Chess Club played against the Chess Club in 1824.
In 1843, published his and Handbook of Chessthe first comprehensive manual of chess theory.
Chess was occasionally criticized in the 19th century as a waste of time.
The "", Anderssen vs.
Kieseritzky, 1851 The first modern chess tournament was organized bya leading English chess player, and was.
It was won by the Germanwho was hailed as the leading chess master.
His brilliant, energetic attacking style was.
Sparkling games like Anderssen's and or "" were regarded as the highest possible summit of the chess art.
The romantic era was characterized by opening sacrificing pawns or even piecesdaring attacks, and brazen sacrifices.
Many elaborate and beautiful but unsound move sequences called "combinations" were played by the masters of the time.
The game was played more for art than theory.
A profound belief that chess merit resided in the players' genius rather than inherent in the position on the board pervaded chess practice.
Deeper insight into the nature of chess came with the Americanan extraordinary.
Morphy won against all important competitors except Staunton, who refused to playincluding Anderssen, during his short chess career between 1857 and 1863.
Morphy's success stemmed from a combination of brilliant attacks and sound strategy; he intuitively knew how to prepare attacks.
The scientific approach and positional understanding of Steinitz revolutionized the game.
Steinitz was the first to break a position down into its components.
Before Steinitz, players brought their queen out early, did not completely their other pieces, and mounted a quick attack on the opposing king, which either succeeded or failed.
The level of defense was poor and players did not form any deep plan.
In addition to his theoretical achievements, Steinitz founded an important tradition: his triumph over the leading German master in 1886 is regarded as the first official.
Steinitz lost his crown in 1894 to a much younger player, the German mathematicianwho maintained this title for 27 years, the longest tenure of any world champion.
Chess Players, Cairo by 1835—1884 After the end of the 19th century, the number of master tournaments and matches held annually quickly grew.
Some sources state that in 1914 the title of chess was first formally conferred by Tsar to Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine,andbut this is a disputed claim.
The tradition of awarding such titles was continued by the World Chess Federationfounded in 1924 in Paris.
In 1927, the was established; the first to hold the title was Czech-English master.
It took a prodigy from Cuba, World Champion 1921—1927who loved simple positions and endgames, to end the German-speaking dominance in chess; he was undefeated in tournament play for eight years, until 1924.
His successor was Russian-Frencha strong attacking player who died as the world champion in 1946.
He briefly lost the title to Dutch player in click the following article and regained it two years later.
Between the world wars, chess was revolutionized by the new theoretical school of so-called like and.
They advocated controlling the of the board with distant pieces rather than with pawns, thus inviting opponents to occupy the center with pawns, which become objects of attack.
FIDE, which has controlled the title since then except for one interruptionran a tournament of elite players.
The winner of theRussianstarted an era of dominance in the chess world.
Until the end of the Soviet Union, there was only one non-Soviet champion, American champion 1972—1975.
Previously Black strove for equality, to neutralize White's.
As Black, Botvinnik strove for the initiative from the beginning.
In the previous informal system of World Championships, the current champion decided which challenger he would play for the title and the challenger was forced to seek sponsors for the match.
FIDE set up a new system of qualifying tournaments and matches.
The world's strongest players were seeded into tournaments, where they were joined by players who had qualified from Zonal tournaments.
The leading finishers in these Interzonals would go on the "" stage, which was initially a tournament, and later a series of knockout matches.
The winner of the Candidates would then play the reigning champion for the title.
A champion defeated in a match had a right to play a rematch a year later.
This system operated on a three-year cycle.
Botvinnik participated in championship matches over a period of fifteen years.
He won the world championship tournament in 1948 and retained the title in tied matches in 1951 and 1954.
In 1957, he lost tobut regained the title in a rematch in 1958.
In 1960, he lost the title to the 23-year-old Latvian prodigyan accomplished and attacking player.
Botvinnik again regained the title in a rematch in 1961.
Following the 1961 event, FIDE abolished the automatic right of a deposed champion to a rematch, and the next champion, Armeniana player renowned for his defensive and positional skills, held the title for two cycles, 1963—1969.
His successor, from Russia champion 1969—1972won games in both positional and sharp tactical style.
The next championship, the so-calledsaw the first non-Soviet challenger since World War II, Americanwho defeated his Candidates opponents by unheard-of margins and clearly won the world championship match.
In 1975, however, Fischer refused to defend his title against Soviet when FIDE did not meet his demands, and Karpov obtained the title by default.
Fischer modernized many aspects of chess, especially by extensively preparing openings.
Karpov defended his title twice against and dominated the 1970s and early 1980s with a string of tournament successes.
Karpov's reign finally ended in 1985 at the hands ofanother Soviet player from .
Kasparov and Karpov contested five world title matches between 1984 and 1990; Karpov never won his title back.
In 1993, Garry Kasparov and broke with FIDE to organize their own match for the title and formed a competing PCA.
From then until 2006, there were two simultaneous World Champions and World Championships: the PCA or Classical champion extending the Steinitzian tradition in which the current champion plays a challenger in a series of many games, and the other following FIDE's new format of many players competing in a tournament to determine the champion.
Kasparov lost his Classical title in to of Russia.
Thein which Kramnik beat the FIDE World Championreunified the titles and made Kramnik the undisputed World Chess Champion.
In September 2007, he lost the title to of India, who won the in.
Anand defended his title in the2010 and 2012.
In 2013, beat Anand in the.
He defended his titleagain against Anand.
Carlsen confirmed his title in 2016 against the Russian and in 2018 against the Americanin both occasions by a rapid tiebreaker match after equality in 12 games of classicaland is the reigning world champion.
Place in culture A chess party with live figures in1924 Pre-modern In the and during thechess was a part of culture; it was used to teach war strategy and was dubbed the "".
Gentlemen are "to be meanly seene in the play at Chestes", says the overview at the beginning of 's 1528, English 1561 by Sir Thomas Hobybut chess should not be a gentleman's main passion.
Castiglione explains it further: And what say you to the game at chestes?
It is truely an honest kynde of enterteynmente and wittie, quoth Syr Friderick.
But me think it hath a fault, whiche is, that a man may be to couning at it, for who ever will be excellent in the playe of chestes, I beleave he must beestowe much tyme about it, and applie it with so much study, that a man may assoone learne some noble scyence, or compase any other matter of importaunce, and yet in the ende in beestowing all that laboure, he knoweth no more but a game.
Therfore in this I beleave there happeneth a very rare thing, namely, that the meane is more commendable, then the excellency.
Many of the elaborate chess sets used by the aristocracy have been lost, but others partially survive, such as the.
Chess was often used as a basis of sermons on.
An example is Liber de moribus hominum et officiis nobilium https://sibtao.ru/chess-game/chess-game-online-for-money.html super ludo scacchorum 'Book of the customs of men and the duties of nobles or the Book of Chess'written by an Italian monk c.
This book was one of the most popular of the Middle Ages.
The work was translated into many other languages the first printed edition was published at Utrecht in 1473 and was the basis for 's The Game and Playe of the Chesse 1474one of the first books printed in English.
Known in the circles of clerics, students, and merchants, chess entered into the popular culture of Middle Ages.
An example is the 209th song of from the 13th century, which starts with the names of chess pieces, Roch, pedites, regina.
Modern During thechess was viewed as a means of self-improvement.
By playing at Chess then, we may learn: I.
Many schools host chess clubs, and there are many scholastic tournaments specifically for children.
Tournaments are held regularly in many countries, hosted by organizations such as the and the National Scholastic Chess Foundation.
Chess is often depicted in ; significant works where chess plays a key role range from Thomas Middleton's to by Lewis Carroll, to Vladimir Nabokov'sto by Stefan Zweig.
Chess is featured in films like Ingmar Bergman's and Satyajit Ray's.
Chess is also present in contemporary popular culture.
For example, the characters in play a futuristic version of the game called "".
The hero of struggles against adopting the and views of a world chess champion.
Chess is used as the core theme in the by, and.
The film is about a chess grandmaster who is accused of being a.
Prohibition in Islam In 1979 in Islamic Republic of Iran, Grand Ayatollah issued a religious ruling against chess on the grounds that it "excessively fatigues the brain" and constitutes.
The same Ayatollah lifted the ban in 1988, however, and said it was permissible as long as it was not a means of gambling.
Iran now has an and sends players to international events.
In 2016 in Saudi Arabia, issued a religious ruling that chess is forbidden in Islam because it constitutesstating "chess is a waste of time and an opportunity to squander money.
It causes enmity and hatred between people.
Notation for recording moves Square names in Chess games and positions are recorded using a system of notation, most commonly.
Abbreviated algebraic or short algebraic notation generally records moves in the format: abbreviation of the piece moved — file where it moved — rank where it moved The pieces are identified by their initials.
In English, these are K kingQ queenR rookB bishopand N knight; N is used to avoid confusion with king.
For yahoo us games chess online, Qg5 means "queen moves to the g-file, 5th rank" that is, to the square g5.
Chess literature published in other languages may use different initials for pieces, or may be used to avoid language issues.
To resolve ambiguities, an additional letter or number is added to indicate the file or rank from which the piece moved e.
Ngf3 means "knight from the g-file moves to the square f3"; R1e2 means "rook on the first rank moves to e2".
The letter P for pawn is not used; so e4 means "pawn moves to the square e4".
If the piece makes a capture, "x" is inserted before the destination square.
Thus Bxf3 means "bishop captures on f3".
When a pawn makes a capture, the file from which the pawn departed is used in place of a piece initial, and ranks may be omitted if unambiguous.
For example, exd5 pawn on the e-file captures the piece on d5 or exd pawn on the e-file captures a piece somewhere on the d-file.
Particularly in Germany, some publications use ":" rather than "x" to indicate capture, but this is now rare.
Some publications omit the capture symbol altogether; so exd5 would be rendered simply as ed.
Castling is indicated by the special notations 0-0 for castling and 0-0-0 https://sibtao.ru/chess-game/chess-titan-game-online.html castling.
An en passant capture is sometimes marked with the notation "e.
Checkmate can be indicated by " ".
At the end of the game, "1—0" means White won, "0—1" means Black won, and "½—½" indicates a draw.
Chess moves can be annotated with.
Qxf7 The text-based PGNwhich is understood by chess software, is based on short form English language algebraic notation.
Until about 1980, the majority of English language chess publications used a form of.
In descriptive notation, files are named find chess games position to the piece which occupies the back rank at the start of the game, and each square has two different names depending on whether it is from White's or Black's point of view.
For example, the square known as "e3" in algebraic notation is "K3" King's 3rd from White's point of view, and "K6" King's 6th from Black's point of view.
When recording captures, the captured piece is named rather than the square on which it is captured except to resolve ambiguities.
Thus, Scholar's mate is rendered in descriptive notation: 1.
QxBP mate A few players still prefer descriptive notation, but it is no longer recognized by FIDE.
Another system isrecognized by the though its use is in decline.
Squares are identified by numeric coordinates, for example a1 is "11" and h8 is "88".
Moves are described by the "from" and "to" squares, e.
Captures are not indicated.
Castling is described by the king's move only; e.
Stages Opening Main article: A chess opening is the group of initial moves of a game the "opening moves".
Recognized sequences of opening moves are referred to as openings and have been given names such as the or.
They are catalogued in reference works such as the.
There are dozens of different openings, varying widely in character from quiet for example, the to very aggressive the.
In some opening lines, the exact sequence considered best for both sides has been worked out to more than 30 moves.
Professional players spend years studying openings and continue doing so throughout their careers, as continues to evolve.
A correctly timed castling can often enhance this.
Most players and consider that White, by virtue of the first move.
This initially gives White the.
Black usually strives to neutralize White's advantage and achieveor to develop in an unbalanced position.
Middlegame Main article: The middlegame is the part of the game which starts after the opening.
There is no clear line between the opening and the middlegame, but typically the middlegame will start when most pieces have been developed.
Similarly, there is no clear transition from the middlegame to the endgame; see.
Because the opening theory has ended, players have to form plans based on the features of the position, and at the same time take into account the tactical possibilities of the position.
The middlegame is the phase in which most occur.
Combinations are a series of tactical moves executed to achieve some gain.
Middlegame combinations are often connected with an attack against the opponent's king.
Some typical patterns have their own names; for example, the or the combination.
Specific plans or strategic themes will often arise from particular groups of openings which result in a specific type of pawn structure.
An example is thewhich is the attack of queenside pawns against an opponent who has more pawns on the queenside.
The study of openings is therefore connected to the preparation of plans that are typical of the resulting middlegames.
Another important strategic question in the middlegame is whether and how to reduce material and transition into an endgame i.
Minor material advantages can generally be transformed into victory only in an endgame, and therefore the stronger side must choose an appropriate way to achieve an ending.
Not every reduction of material is good for this purpose; for example, if one side keeps a light-squared bishop and the opponent has a dark-squared one, the transformation into a ending is usually advantageous for the weaker side only, because an endgame with is likely to be a draw, even with an advantage of a pawn, or sometimes even with a two-pawn advantage.
Endgame The side having to move is disadvantaged.
The endgame also end game or ending is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board.
Endgames often revolve around endeavors to a pawn by advancing it to the furthest.
It is often brought to the where phrase play chess board game online free right can protect its own pawns, attack enemy pawns, and hinder moves of the opponent's king.
In the example diagram, either side having the move is in zugzwang: Black to move must play 1.
Kb7 allowing White to promote the pawn after 2.
Kd7; White to move must permit a draw, either by 1.
Kc6 or by losing the pawn after any other legal move.
Endgames can be classified according to the type of pieces remaining on the board.
For example, involve only kings and pawns on one or both sides, and the task of the stronger side is to promote one of the pawns.
Other more complicated endings are classified according to pieces on the board other than kings, such as "" endgames.
Strategy and tactics Chess strategy consists of setting and achieving long-term positioning advantages during the game — for example, where to place different pieces — while tactics concentrate on immediate maneuver.
These two aspects of the gameplay cannot be completely separated, because strategic goals are mostly achieved through tactics, while the tactical opportunities are based on the previous strategy of play.
A game of chess is normally divided into three phases: thetypically the first 10 moves, when players move their pieces to useful positions for the coming battle; the ; and last thewhen most of the pieces are gone, kings typically find chess games position a more active part in the struggle, and pawn promotion is often decisive.
Fundamentals of tactics 23.
Qh7 In chess, tactics in general concentrate on short-term actions — so short-term that they can be calculated in advance by a human player or by a computer.
The possible depth of calculation depends on the player's ability.
In quiet positions with many possibilities on both sides, a deep calculation is more difficult and may not be practical, while in "tactical" positions with a limited number of forced variations, strong players can calculate long sequences of moves.
Simple one-move or two-move tactical actions — threats, exchanges ofand double attacks — can be combined into more complicatedsequences of tactical maneuvers that are often forced from the point of view of one or both players.
Theoreticians describe many elementary tactical methods and typical maneuvers; for example,, especially discovered checks,,and.
A forced variation that involves a sacrifice and usually results in a tangible gain is called a.
Brilliant combinations — such as those in the — are considered beautiful and are admired by chess lovers.
A common type of chess exercise, aimed at developing players' skills, is a position where a decisive combination is available and challenging them to find it.
Fundamentals of strategy Main article: Chess strategy is concerned with evaluation of chess positions and with setting up goals and long-term plans for the future play.
During the evaluation, players must take into account numerous factors read article as the value of the pieces on the board, control of the center and centralization, theking safety, and the control of key squares or groups of squares for example, diagonals, open files, and dark or light squares.
The most basic step in evaluating a position is to count the of both sides.
The point values used for this purpose are based on experience; usually pawns are considered worth one point, knights and bishops about three points each, rooks about five points the value difference between a rook and a bishop or knight being known asand queens about nine points.
The king is more valuable than all of the other pieces combined, since its checkmate loses the game.
But in practical terms, in the endgame the king as a fighting piece is generally more powerful than a bishop or knight but less powerful than a rook.
These basic values are then modified by other factors like position of the piece e.
Example of underlying pawn structure.
Since pawns are the least mobile of the pieces, the pawn structure is relatively static and largely determines the strategic nature of the position.
Weaknesses in the pawn structure, such as, or andonce created, are often permanent.
Care must therefore be taken to avoid these weaknesses unless they are compensated by another valuable asset for example, by the possibility of developing an attack.
Competitive play Organization of competitions Contemporary chess is an organized sport with structured international and national leagues, tournaments, and.
Chess's international governing body is Fédération Internationale des Échecs.
Most countries have a national chess organization as well such as the and which in turn is a member of FIDE.
FIDE is a member of thebut the game of chess has never been part of the ; chess does have its ownheld every two years as a team event.
Former world champion left playing against his predecessor The current World Chess Champion is of Norway.
The reigning Women's World Champion is from China.
The world's highest rated female player,has never participated in theinstead preferring to compete with the leading men and maintaining a ranking among the top male players.
Other competitions for individuals include thetheand the.
Invitation-only tournaments regularly attract the world's strongest players.
Examples include Spain's event, Monte Carlo's tournament, the meeting, Sofia'sand Wijk aan Zee's tournament.
Regular team chess events include the and the.
The and World Championships include both team and individual events.
Besides these prestigious competitions, there are thousands of other chess tournaments, matches, and festivals held around the world every year catering to players of all levels.
Chess is promoted as a "mind sport" by thealongside other such as, and.
Titles and rankingsformeris considered by many to be one of the.
Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain.
Before FIDE will confer the title on a player, the player must have an see below of at least 2500 at one time and three favorable results called norms in tournaments involving other grandmasters, including some from countries other than the applicant's.
There are other milestones a player can achieve to attain the title, such as winning the World Junior Championship.
The conditions are similar to GM, but less demanding.
The minimum rating for the IM title is 2400.
The usual way for a player to qualify for the FIDE Master title is by achieving a FIDE rating of 2300 or more.
Similar to FM, but with a FIDE rating of at least 2200.
All the titles free game for pc best download chess open to men and women.
Separate women-only titles, such as Woman Grandmaster WGMare available.
Beginning with in 1978, a number of women have earned the GM title, and most of the top ten women in 2006 hold the unrestricted GM title.
As of 2018there are 1725 active grandmasters and 3903 international masters in the world.
The top three countries with the largest numbers of grandmasters are Russia, the United States, and Germany, with 251, 98, and 96, respectively.
International titles are awarded to composers and solvers of chess problems and to correspondence chess players by the.
National chess organizations may also award titles, usually to the advanced players still under the level needed for international titles; an example is the title used in the United States.
In order to rank players, FIDE,and national chess organizations use the developed by.
Elo is a based on the assumption that the chess performance of each player in his or her games is a random variable.
Arpad Elo thought of a player's true skill as the average of that player's performance random variable, and showed how to estimate the average from results of player's games.
The implemented Elo's suggestions in 1960, and the system quickly gained recognition as being both fairer and more accurate than older systems; it was adopted by FIDE in 1970.
A beginner or casual player typically has an Elo rating of less than 1000; an ordinary club player has a rating of about 1500, a strong club player about 2000, a grandmaster usually has a rating of over 2500, and an elite player has a rating of over 2700.
The highest FIDE rating of all time, 2881, was achieved by on the March 2014 FIDE rating list.
Composition Main article: Chess composition is the art of creating chess problems also called chess compositions.
The creator is known as a.
These are often referred to as "mate in n" — for example "mate in three" a three-mover ; two- and three-move problems are the most common.
These usually involve positions that would be highly unlikely to occur in an actual game, and are intended to illustrate a particularusually requiring a surprising or counter-intuitive move.
Almost all studies are positions.
Chess composition is a distinct branch of chess sport, and tournaments exist for both the composition and solving of chess problems.
Example White to move and draw This is one of the most famous chess studies; it was published by 4 December 1921.
It seems impossible to catch the advanced black pawn, while the black king can easily stop the white pawn.
The solution is a advance, which brings the king to both pawns simultaneously: 1.
Ke7 and the white king can support its pawn.
Ke5 Now the white king comes just in time to support his pawn, or catch the black one.
Kf4 and White will capture the pawn.
Kd6 Both sides will queen, resulting in a draw.
Publications Main articles:, and Chess has a very extensive literature.
In 1913, the chess historian estimated the total number of books, magazines, and to be about 5,000.
No one knows how many have been printed.
GM owned the world's largest private collection of chess books and memorabilia.
David DeLucia's chess library contains 7,000 to 8,000 chess books, a similar number of autographs letters, score sheets, manuscriptsand about 1,000 items of "ephemera".
Mathematics and computers See also:,and The game structure and nature of chess are related to several branches of mathematics.
Many and problems connected to chess have been known for hundreds of years.
Combinatorics of chess and chess puzzles Mathematicians,and studied the.
The number of legal positions in chess is estimated to be about 10 43, and has been proved to be fewer than 10 47, with a of approximately 10 123.
The game-tree complexity of chess was first calculated by as 10 120, a number known as the.
An average position typically has thirty to forty possible moves, but there may be as few as zero in the case of checkmate or stalemate or in a constructed position as many as 218.
Chess has inspired many combinatorial puzzles, such as the and the.
Computer chess The idea of creating a chess-playing machine dates to the 18th century; around 1769, the chess-playing called became famous before being exposed as a.
Serious trials based on automata, such aswere too complex and limited to be useful.
Since the advent of the in the 1950s, chess enthusiasts, and computer scientists have built, with increasing degrees of seriousness and success, chess-playing machines and computer programs.
The groundbreaking paper on computer chess, "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess", was published in 1950 by Shannon.
He wrote: The chess machine is an ideal one to start with, since: 1 the problem is sharply defined both in allowed operations the moves and in the ultimate goal checkmate ; 2 it is neither so simple as to be trivial nor too difficult for satisfactory solution; 3 chess is generally considered to require "thinking" for skillful play; a solution of this problem will force us either to admit the possibility of a mechanized thinking or to further restrict our concept of "thinking"; 4 game android download free chess for discrete structure of chess fits well into the digital nature of modern computers.
Nowadays, chess programs compete in theheld annually since 1974.
At first considered only a curiosity, the best have become extremely strong.
In 1997, a computer won a chess match using classical time controls against a reigning World Champion for the first time: beat 3½—2½ it scored two wins, one loss, and three.
However, the match wasand computers would only win such a match again.
In 2009, a won a 6 tournament with a performance rating 2898: chess engine 13 running on the mobile phone won the Copa Mercosur tournament with nine wins and one draw.
The best chess programs are now able to consistently beat the strongest human players, to the extent that no longer attract interest from chess players or media.
With huge databases of past https://sibtao.ru/chess-game/free-chess-games-offline.html and high analytical ability, computers can help players to learn chess and prepare for matches.
The presence of computers and modern communication tools have raised concerns regarding during games, most notably the "" during the 2006 World Championship.
Relation to game theory In 1913, used chess as a basis for his theory of game strategies, which is considered as one of the predecessors of.
According tohowever, there are 10 43 legal positions in chess, so it will take an impossibly long time to compute a perfect strategy with any feasible technology.
The 11-category, game theoretical taxonomy of chess includes: two player, no-chance, combinatorial, Markov state present state is all a player needs to move; although past state led up to that point, knowledge of the sequence of past moves is not required to make the next move, except to take into account of en passant and castling, which do depend on the past moveszero sum, symmetric, perfect information, non-cooperative, discrete, extensive form tree decisions, not payoff matricesand sequential.
Computational complexity Generalized chess played on n× n board, without the is.
Combinatorial game theory Some applications of to chess endgames were found by 1996.
Psychology A children's chess tournament in the United States There is an extensive scientific literature on chess psychology.
In his doctoral thesis, showed that chess masters can rapidly perceive the key features of a position.
According to de Groot, thismade possible by years of practice and study, is more important than the sheer ability to anticipate moves.
De Groot showed that chess masters can memorize positions shown for a few seconds almost perfectly.
The ability please click for source memorize does not alone account for chess-playing skill, since masters and novices, when faced with random arrangements of chess pieces, had equivalent recall about six positions in each case.
Rather, it is the ability to recognize patterns, which are then memorized, which distinguished the skilled players from the novices.
When the positions of the pieces were taken from an actual game, the masters had almost total positional recall.
More recent research has focused on ; the respective roles of knowledge and look-ahead search; studies of chess masters and novices; ; the role of and in chess skill; gender differences; and computational models of chess expertise.
The role of practice and talent in the development of chess and other domains of expertise has led to much recent research.
Ericsson and colleagues have argued that deliberate practice is sufficient for reaching high levels of expertise in chess.
Recent research indicates that factors other than practice are also important.
For example, and colleagues have shown that stronger players started playing chess at a young age and that experts born in the Northern Hemisphere are more likely to have been born in late winter and early spring.
Compared to general population, chess players are more likely to be non-right-handed, though they found no correlation between handedness and skill.
Chess and intelligence A relationship between chess skill and intelligence has long been discussed in the literature and popular culture.
Academic studies of the relationship date back at least to 1927.
Academic opinion has long been split on how strong the relationship is, with some studies finding no relationship and others finding a relatively strong one.
A 2016 and review based on 19 studies and a total sample size of 1,779 found that various aspects of correlate with chess skill, with average correlations ranging from 0.
The review did not find strong evidence of biasing these estimates.
Variantslaunched in 1949, became popular in Eastern Europe, reaching half a million fans.
Three cell colors and three bishops per side are the norm for hexagonal variants.
One rules variant that has gained significantly in popularity is named "Fischerandom" by its inventor.
In Chess960, the starting position is from 960 unique possibilities, including the classic chess initial position without change, while the other 959 render the use of impracticable.
In 2008, FIDE added Chess960 to its Handbook.
Prime sources in English describing chess variants and their rules include 's encyclopedias, the website created by with various contributors, and the magazine Variant Chess published from 1990 George Jellis to 2010 the.
In the context of chess variants, regular i.
FIDE chess is commonly referred to as Western chess, international chess, orthodox chess, orthochess, and classic chess.
The Spanish "x" was pronounced as English "sh", as the Portuguese "x" still is today.
The spelling of ajedrez changed after.
Retrieved 20 July 2010.
Retrieved 29 November 2008.
This section is now classified under "Guidelines", indicating that the rules presented do not have the weight of FIDE law.
Retrieved 22 October 2017.
Consejo Superior de Deportes.
Archived from on 4 October 2015.
Retrieved 4 October 2015.
Retrieved 1 June 2017.
Retrieved 1 December 2009.
PDF from the original on 30 January 2016.
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Online at University of Oregon.
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London, 1900: David Nutt.
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Retrieved 16 January 2013.
Retrieved on 11 January 2009.
In 1992, and stated that Schmid's chess library "is the largest and finest in private hands, with more than 15,000 items".
In 2008, stated that Schmid "has over 20,000 chess books".
Retrieved 3 March 2012.
Dirk Jan ten Geuzendam, "The Finest Chess Collection in the World",2010, No.
The title of the article refers to David DeLucia's collection, not Schmid's.
An Upper Bound for the Number of Reachable Positions.
Retrieved 5 December 2006.
Archived from on 13 June 2007.
Behind Deep Blue: Building the Computer that Defeated the World Chess Champion, Princeton University Press.
University of Southampton and King's College Cambridge.
Programming a Computer for Playing Chess.
Available online at PDF.
Archived from PDF on 15 March 2010.
Retrieved 30 November 2006.
Archived from on 30 September 2011.
Retrieved 4 September 2010.
The New York Times.
Retrieved 28 August 2010.
Cited from Eichhorn, Christoph: Der Beginn der Formalen Spieltheorie: Zermelo 191312 June 2007 at the.
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Archived from on 7 June 2011.
Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology: Volume 8.
Machine Learning: An Algorithmic Perspective.
New York: Chapman and Hall.
A 31 : 199—214.
Games of No Chance, MSRI Publications.
Psychology of Intelligence Analysis Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency 1999 see 12 September 2007 at the.
Archived from PDF on 12 May 2006.
Retrieved 21 March 2017.
PDF from the original on 18 July 2011.
PDF from the original on 8 August 2007.
Current Directions in Psychological Science.
The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants.
Retrieved 20 April 2017.
A; Joel David Hamkins 2013.
A; Joel David Hamkins; Norman Lewis Perlmutter 2015.
New Rules for Classic Games.
The form of chess most people know—which is sometimes referred to as Western chess, orthodox chess, or orthochess—is itself just one of many that have been played throughout history.
Power Play: The Literature and Politics of Chess in the Late Middle Ages.
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Psychologie des grands calculateurs et joueurs d'échecs in French.
Chess History and Reminiscences.
The Mammoth Book of Chess.
The Mammoth Book of the World's Greatest Chess Games 2nd ed.
A Short History of Chess.
Thought and Choice in Chess English ed.
Perception and Memory in Chess: Heuristics of the Professional Eye.
Assen, NL: Van Gorcum.
World Cultures Through Art Activities.
Englewood, CO: Teachers Ideas Press.
New Ideas in Chess.
New York: Pitman 1984 edition.
Retrieved 12 December 2010.
Moves in Mind: The Psychology of Board Games.
Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
Better Chess for Average Players.
New York: Courier Dover Publications.
The Kings of Chess.
New York: Pavilion Books.
The Psychology of Chess Skill.
Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
How to Solve Chess Problems.
New York: Courier Dover Publications.
Behind Deep Blue: Building the Computer that Defeated the World Chess Champion.
My Great Predecessors, part II.
London; Guilford, CT: Everyman Chess.
My Great Predecessors, part III.
London; Guilford, CT: Everyman Chess.
My Great Predecessors, part IV.
London; Guilford, CT: Everyman Chess.
My Great Predecessors, part V.
London; Guilford, CT: Everyman Chess.
Gary Kasparov's Best Games.
London: Billings 1988 reprint.
Sports and Games of the Renaissance.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
The Turk, Chess Automaton.
The Genealogy of Chess.
Berkeley: University of California Press.
A History of Chess.
The Oxford History of Board Games.
London: Batsford Chess Books.
Chess Players' Thinking: A Cognitive Psychological Approach.
The Complete Book of Chess Strategy.
Los Angeles: Silman-James Press.
Paul Morphy and the Evolution of Chess Theory.
New York: Courier Dover Publications.
The Steinitz Papers: Letters and Documents of the First World Chess Champion.
The Game of Chess.
New York: Courier Dover Find chess games position />The Princely Court: Medieval Courts and Culture in North-West Europe, 1270—1380.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bobby Fischer for Beginners.
Secrets of Modern Chess Strategy.
Stroud: Office of The Chess Amateur.
Isabel Rules: Qonstructing Queenship, Wielding Power.
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin.
New Series 1 9 : 271—79.
Birth of the Chess Queen.
New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Chess Psychology: Approaching the Psychological Battle Both on and Off the Board.
The World's Great Chess Games.
Philosophy Looks at Chess.
Think Like a Grandmaster.
Lasker's Manual of Chess.
The Art of Chess.
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External links This audio file was created from a revision of the article " Chess" dated 2016-10-18, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article.
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Chess Game Database Shortcomings of classical Chess Game Databases The first generation of chess databases has been developed to manage chess games — those of the user and of course millions of other chess players.
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Part of a Left to right: whiteblackblackwhiteblackwhite Years active c.
Random chance None Skill s requiredChess is a two-player played on a checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
The game is played by millions of people worldwide.
Chess is believed to be derived from the Indian game sometime before the 7th century.
Chaturanga is also the likely ancestor of the strategy games, and.
Chess reached Europe by the 9th century, due to the.
The pieces assumed their current powers in Spain in the late 15th century; the modern rules were standardized in the 19th century.
Each player begins with 16 : oneonetwotwotwoand eight.
Each piece type differently, with the most powerful being the queen and the least powerful the pawn.
The objective is to the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture.
To this end, a player's pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, while supporting each other.
During the game, play typically involves pieces for the opponent's similar pieces, and finding and engineering opportunities to trade advantageously or to get a better position.
In addition to checkmate, a player wins the game if the opponentor in a timed game runs out of time.
There are also several ways that a game can end in a.
The first generally recognized, claimed his title in 1886.
Since 1948, the World Championship has been regulated by the FIDEthe game's international governing body.
FIDE also awards life-time to skilled players, the highest of which is GM.
Many national chess organizations have a title system of visit web page own.
FIDE also organizes thethethetheand thea popular competition among international teams.
FIDE is a member of thewhich can be considered as a recognition of chess as a.
Several national sporting bodies e.
Chess was included in the 2006 and 2010.
There is also a and a.
Online chess has opened amateur and professional competition to a wide and varied group of players.
Since the second half of the 20th century, have been programmed to play with increasing success, to the point where the strongest programs play at a higher level than the best human players.
Since the 1990s, computer analysis has contributed significantly toparticularly in the.
The IBM computer was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion in a match when it in 1997.
The rise of strong chess engines runnable on hand-held devices has led to increasing concerns about during tournaments.
There are many that utilize different rules, pieces, or boards.
One of these,has gained widespread popularity as well as some FIDE recognition.
Rules published by national governing bodies, or by unaffiliated chess organizations, commercial publishers, etc.
FIDE's rules were most recently revised in 2017.
Setup Initial position, first bottom row: rook, knight, bishop, queen, king, bishop, knight, and rook; second row: pawns Setup at the start of a game By convention, chess are divided into sets.
Each set consists of 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights, and eight pawns.
The pieces are https://sibtao.ru/chess-game/download-chess-game-for-free-windows-7.html out as shown in the and photo.
The players of the sets are referred to as White and Black, respectively.
The game is played on a square of eight rows calleddenoted 1 to 8 from bottom to top according to White's perspective and eight columns calleddenoted a to h from left to right according to White's perspective.
The 64 squares alternate in color and are referred to as light and dark squares.
The chessboard is placed with a light square at the right-hand end of the rank nearest to each player.
Thus, each queen starts on a square of its own color the white queen on a light square; the black queen on a dark square.
Movement In competitive games, the colors are allocated by the organizers; in informal games, the colors are usually decided randomly, for example by coin toss, or by one player's concealing a white and black pawn in either hand and having the opponent choose.
The player with the white pieces moves first, after which players alternate turns, moving one piece per turn except forwhen two pieces are moved.
A piece is moved to either an unoccupied square or one occupied by an opponent's piece, which is captured and removed from play.
With the sole exception ofall pieces capture by moving to the square that the opponent's piece occupies.
Moving is compulsory; it is illegal to skip a turn, even when having to move is.
A player may not make any move that would put or leave the player's own king in.
If the player to move has no legal move, the game is over; the result is either a loss for the player with no legal move if the king is in check, or a draw if the king is not.
Each piece has its own way of moving.
In the diagrams, the dots mark the squares to which the piece can move if there are no intervening piece s of either color except the knight, which leaps over any intervening pieces.
The king also has a special move called that involves also moving a rook.
Along with the king, a rook is involved during the king's castling move.
Thus the move forms an "L"-shape: two squares vertically and one square horizontally, or two squares horizontally and one square vertically.
The knight is the only piece that can leap over other pieces.
A pawn has two special moves: the capture game banned in arabia />Examples of Once in every game, each king can make a special move, known as.
Castling consists of moving the king two squares along the first rank toward a rook that is on the player's first rank and then placing the rook on the last square that the king just crossed.
Note that castling is permitted if the rook is under attack, or if the rook crosses an attacked square.
En passant Examples of pawn moves: left ; right When a pawn makes a two-step advance from its starting position and there is an opponent's pawn on a square next to the destination square on an adjacent file, then the opponent's pawn can capture it en passant "in passing"moving to the square the pawn passed over.
This can only be done on the very next turn, otherwise the right to do so is forfeited.
For example, in the animated diagram, the black pawn advances two steps from g7 to g5, and the white pawn on f5 can take it en passant on g6 but only on White's next move.
Promotion Main article: When a pawn advances to the eighth rank, as a part of the move it is promoted and must be exchanged for the player's choice of queen, rook, bishop, or knight of the same color.
Usually, the pawn is chosen to be promoted to a queen, but in some cases another piece is chosen; this is called.
In thethe pawn on c7 can be advanced to the eighth rank and be promoted.
There is no restriction placed on the piece promoted to, so it is possible to have more pieces of the same type than at the start of the game e.
The black king is in by the rook.
When a king is under immediate attack by one or two of the opponent's pieces, it is said to be in.
A move in response to a check is legal only if it results in a position where the king is no longer in check.
This can involve capturing the checking piece; interposing a piece between the checking piece and the king which is possible only if the attacking piece is a queen, rook, or bishop and there is a square between it and the king ; or moving the king to a square where it is not under attack.
Castling is not a permissible response to a check.
The object of the game is to checkmate the opponent; this occurs when the opponent's king is in check, and there is no legal way to remove it from attack.
It is never legal for a player to make a move that puts or leaves the player's own king in check.
In casual games it is common to announce "check" when putting the opponent's king in check, but this is not required by the rules of chess, and is not usually done in tournaments.
End of the game Win White is inbeing unable to escape attack by the black bishops.
It is usually considered poor etiquette to play on in a hopeless position, and for this reason high-level games rarely end in checkmate.
Draw Black is not in check and has no legal move.
The correct procedure is to verbally offer the draw, find chess games position a move, then start the opponent's clock.
Traditionally, players have been allowed to agree to a draw at any point in the game, occasionally click at this page without playing a move; in recent years efforts have been made to discourage short draws, for example by forbidding draw offers before move thirty.
In this situation, either player can claim a draw; this requires the players to keep a valid written record of the game so that the claim can be verified by the arbiter if challenged.
The three occurrences of the position need not occur on consecutive moves for a claim to be valid.
FIDE rules make no find chess games position of ; this is merely a specific type of draw by threefold repetition.
There are several known endgames where it is possible to force a mate but it requires more than 50 moves before a pawn move or capture is made; examples include some endgames with and some such as queen against two bishops.
Historically, FIDE has sometimes revised the 50-move rule to make exceptions for these endgames, but these have since been repealed.
Some organizations do not enforce the fifty-move rule.
This is a relatively recent 2014 addition to the FIDE rules.
As with the fivefold-repetition rule, this applies independently of claims by the players, and allows a tournament director to intervene.
This rule likewise is a recent addition to the FIDE rules.
On the other hand, if both players have a king and a knight left, there is a highly unlikely yet theoretical possibility of checkmate, so this rule does not apply.
Time control A digital chess clock In competition, chess games are played with a.
If a player's time runs out before the game is find chess games position, the game is automatically lost provided the opponent has to deliver checkmate.
The duration of a game ranges from long or "classical" games which can take up to seven hours even longer if are permitted to under 3 minutes per player for the entire game.
Intermediate between these are games, lasting between 20 minutes and two hours per game, a popular time control in amateur weekend tournaments.
Time is controlled using a that has two displays, one for each player's remaining time.
Analog chess clocks have been largely replaced by digital clocks, which allow for time controls with.
Time controls are also enforced in correspondence chess competition.
A typical time control is 50 days for every 10 moves.
Historythe uncheckered 8×8 board, sometimes with special marks, on which was played Chess is believed to have originated inc.
Thence it spread eastward and westward along the.
The earliest evidence of chess is found in the nearby around 600, where the game came to be known by the name.
Chatrang was taken up by the after the 633—44where it was then namedwith the pieces largely retaining their Persian names.
In Spanish "shatranj" was rendered as ajedrez "al-shatranj"in as xadrez, and in as ζατρίκιον zatrikion, which comes directly from the Persian chatrangbut in the rest of Europe it was replaced by versions of the Persian shāh "king"which was familiar as an exclamation and became the English words "check" and "chess".
The oldest archaeological chess artifacts, ivory pieces, were excavated in ancienttoday'sincentral Asia, and date to about 760, with some of them possibly older.
The oldest known chess manual was in Arabic and dates to 840—850, written by 800—870a renowned Arab chess player, titled Kitab ash-shatranj Book of the chess.
This is a lost manuscript, but referenced in later works.
The eastern migration of chess, into China and Southeast Asia, has even less documentation than its migration west.
Alternatively, some contend that chess arose from Chinese chess or one of its predecessors, although this has been contested.
The game reached Western Europe and Russia by at least three routes, the earliest being in the 9th century.
By the year 1000, it had spread throughout both and.
A Latin poem dated to the late 10th century has been preserved in.
A famous 13th-century manuscript covering shatranj,and is known as the.
These modern rules for the basic moves had been adopted in Italy and Spain.
Pawns gained the option of advancing two squares on their first move, while bishops and queens acquired their modern abilities.
The replaced the earlier chess piece towards the end of the 10th century and by the 15th century had become the most powerful piece; consequently modern chess was referred to as "Queen's Chess" or "Mad Queen Chess".
Castling, derived from the "kings leap" usually in combination with a pawn or rook move to bring the king to safety, was introduced.
These new rules quickly spread throughout western Europe.
A tactical puzzle from 1497 book Writings about the of how to play chess began to appear in the 15th century.
The Repetición de Amores y Arte de Ajedrez Repetition of Love and the Art of Playing Chess by churchman was published in in 1497.
Lucena and later masters like PortugueseItalians game about history chess, andand Spanish bishop developed elements of and started to analyze simple.
The two most important French masters werea musician by profession, who discovered the importance of pawns for chess strategy, and laterwho won a famous series of matches with the Irish master in 1834.
Centers of chess activity in this period were in major European cities like in Paris and in London.
Also in the 19th century, the convention that White moves first was established formerly either White or Black could move first.
Finally the rules around castling were standardized — variations in the castling rules had persisted in Game apk chess android until the late 19th century.
The resulting standard game is sometimes referred to as Western chess or international chess, particularly in Asia where other games of the chess family such as are prevalent.
Since the 19th century, the only rule changes have been technical in nature, for example establishing the correct procedure for claiming a draw by repetition.
As the 19th century progressed, chess organization developed quickly.
Manychess books, and chess journals appeared.
There were correspondence matches between cities; for example, the London Chess Club played against the Chess Club in 1824.
In 1843, published his and Handbook of Chessthe first comprehensive manual of chess theory.
Chess was occasionally criticized in the 19th century as a waste of time.
The "", Anderssen vs.
Kieseritzky, 1851 The first modern chess tournament was organized bya leading English chess player, and was.
It was won by the Germanwho was hailed as the leading chess master.
His brilliant, energetic attacking style was.
Sparkling games like Anderssen's and or "" were regarded as the highest possible summit of the chess art.
The romantic era was characterized by opening sacrificing pawns or even piecesdaring attacks, and brazen sacrifices.
Many elaborate and beautiful but unsound move sequences called "combinations" were played by the masters of the time.
The game was played more for art than theory.
A profound belief that chess merit resided in the players' genius rather than inherent in the position on the board pervaded chess practice.
Deeper insight into the nature of chess came with the Americanan extraordinary.
Morphy won against all important competitors except Staunton, who refused to playincluding Anderssen, during his short chess career between 1857 and 1863.
Morphy's success stemmed from a combination of brilliant attacks and sound strategy; he intuitively knew how to prepare attacks.
The scientific approach and positional understanding of Steinitz revolutionized the game.
Steinitz was the first to break a position down into its components.
Before Steinitz, players brought their queen out early, did not completely their other pieces, and mounted a quick attack on the opposing king, which either succeeded or failed.
The level of defense was poor and players did not form any deep plan.
In addition to his theoretical achievements, Steinitz founded an important tradition: his triumph over the leading German master in 1886 is regarded as the first official.
Steinitz lost his crown in 1894 to a much younger player, the German mathematicianwho maintained this title for 27 years, the longest tenure of any world champion.
Chess Players, Cairo by 1835—1884 After the end of the 19th century, the number of master tournaments and matches held annually quickly grew.
Some sources state that in 1914 the title of chess was first formally conferred by Tsar to Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine,andbut this is a disputed claim.
The tradition of awarding such titles was continued by the World Chess Federationfounded in 1924 in Paris.
In 1927, the was established; the first to hold the title was Czech-English master.
It took a prodigy from Cuba, World Champion 1921—1927who loved simple positions and endgames, to end the German-speaking dominance in chess; he was undefeated in tournament play for eight years, until 1924.
His successor was Russian-Frencha strong attacking player who died as the world champion in 1946.
He briefly lost the title to Dutch player in 1935 and regained it two years later.
Between the world wars, chess was revolutionized by the new theoretical school of so-called like and.
They advocated controlling the of the board with distant pieces rather than with pawns, thus inviting opponents to occupy the center with pawns, which become objects of attack.
FIDE, which has controlled the title since then except for one interruptionran a tournament of elite players.
The winner of theRussianstarted an era of dominance in the chess world.
Until the end of the Soviet Union, there was only one non-Soviet champion, American champion 1972—1975.
Previously Black strove for equality, to neutralize White's.
As Black, Botvinnik strove for the initiative from the beginning.
In the previous informal system of World Championships, the current champion decided which challenger he would play for the title and the challenger was forced to seek sponsors for the match.
FIDE set up a new system of qualifying tournaments and matches.
The world's strongest players were seeded into tournaments, where they were joined by players who had qualified from Zonal tournaments.
The leading finishers in these Interzonals would go on the "" stage, which was initially a tournament, and later a series of knockout matches.
The winner of the Candidates would then play the reigning champion for the title.
A champion defeated in a match had a right to play a rematch a year later.
This system operated on a three-year cycle.
Botvinnik participated in championship matches over a period of fifteen years.
He won the world championship tournament in 1948 and retained the title in tied matches in 1951 and 1954.
In 1957, he lost tobut regained the title in a rematch in 1958.
In 1960, he lost the title to the 23-year-old Latvian prodigyan accomplished and attacking player.
Botvinnik again regained the title in a rematch in 1961.
Following the 1961 event, FIDE abolished the automatic right of a deposed champion to a rematch, and the next champion, Armeniana player renowned for his defensive and positional skills, held the title for two cycles, 1963—1969.
His successor, from Russia champion 1969—1972won games in both positional and sharp tactical style.
The next championship, the so-calledsaw the first non-Soviet challenger since World War II, Americanwho defeated his Candidates opponents by unheard-of margins and clearly won the world championship match.
In 1975, however, Fischer refused to defend his title against Soviet when FIDE did not meet his demands, and Karpov obtained the title by default.
Fischer modernized many aspects of chess, especially by extensively preparing openings.
Karpov defended his title twice against and dominated the 1970s and early 1980s with a string of tournament successes.
Karpov's reign finally ended in 1985 at the hands ofanother Soviet player from .
Kasparov and Karpov contested five world title matches between 1984 and 1990; Karpov never won his title back.
In 1993, Garry Kasparov and broke with FIDE to organize their own match for the title and formed a competing PCA.
From then until 2006, there were two simultaneous World Champions and World Championships: the PCA or Classical champion extending the Steinitzian tradition in which the current champion plays a challenger in a series of many games, and the other following FIDE's new format of many players competing in a tournament to determine the champion.
Kasparov lost his Classical title in to of Russia.
Thein which Kramnik beat the FIDE World Championreunified the titles and made Kramnik the undisputed World Chess Champion.
In September 2007, he lost the title to of India, who won the in.
Anand defended his title in the2010 and 2012.
In 2013, beat Anand in the.
He defended his titleagain against Anand.
Carlsen confirmed his title in 2016 against the Russian and in 2018 against the Americanin both occasions by a rapid tiebreaker match after equality in 12 games of classicaland is the reigning world champion.
Place in culture A chess party read article live figures in1924 Pre-modern In the and during thechess was a part of culture; it was used to teach war strategy and was dubbed the "".
Gentlemen are "to be meanly seene in the play at Chestes", says the overview at the beginning of 's 1528, English 1561 by Sir Thomas Hobybut chess should not be a gentleman's main passion.
Castiglione explains it further: And what say you to the game at chestes?
It is truely an honest kynde of enterteynmente and wittie, quoth Syr Friderick.
But me think it hath a fault, whiche is, that a man may be to couning at it, for who ever will be excellent in the playe of chestes, I beleave he must beestowe much tyme about it, and applie it with so much study, that a man may assoone learne some noble scyence, or compase any other matter of importaunce, and yet in the ende in beestowing all that laboure, he knoweth no more but a game.
Therfore in this I beleave there happeneth a very rare thing, namely, that the meane is more commendable, then the excellency.
Many of the elaborate chess sets used by the aristocracy have been lost, but others partially survive, such as the.
Chess was often used as a basis of sermons on.
An example is Liber de moribus hominum et officiis nobilium sive super ludo scacchorum 'Book of the customs of men and the duties of nobles or the Book of Chess'written by an Italian monk c.
This book was one of the most popular of the Middle Ages.
The work was translated into many other languages the first printed edition was published at Utrecht in 1473 and was the basis for 's The Game and Playe of the Chesse 1474one of the first books printed in English.
Known in the circles of clerics, students, and merchants, chess entered into the popular culture of Middle Ages.
An example is the 209th song of from the 13th century, which starts with the names of chess pieces, Roch, pedites, regina.
Modern During thechess was viewed as a means of self-improvement.
By playing at Chess then, we may learn: I.
Many schools host chess clubs, and there are many scholastic tournaments specifically for children.
Tournaments are held regularly in many countries, hosted by organizations such as the and the National Scholastic Chess Foundation.
Chess is often depicted in ; significant works where chess plays a key role range from Thomas Middleton's to by Lewis Carroll, to Vladimir Nabokov'sto by Stefan Zweig.
Chess is featured in films like Ingmar Bergman's and Satyajit Ray's.
Chess is also present in contemporary popular culture.
For example, the characters in play a futuristic version of the game called "".
The hero of struggles against adopting the and views of a world chess champion.
Chess is used as the core theme in the by, and.
The film is about a chess grandmaster who is accused of being a.
Prohibition in Islam In 1979 in Islamic Republic of Iran, Grand Ayatollah issued a religious ruling against chess on the grounds that it "excessively fatigues the brain" and constitutes.
The same Ayatollah lifted the ban in 1988, however, and said it was permissible as long as it was not a means of gambling.
Iran now has an and sends players to international events.
In 2016 in Saudi Arabia, issued a religious ruling that chess is forbidden in Islam because it constitutesstating "chess is a waste of time and an opportunity to squander money.
It causes enmity remarkable, chess titan game online remarkable hatred between people.
Notation for recording moves Square names in Chess games and positions are recorded using a system of notation, most commonly.
Abbreviated algebraic or short algebraic notation generally records moves in the format: abbreviation of the piece moved — file where it moved — rank where it moved The pieces are identified by their initials.
In English, these are K kingQ queenR rookB bishopand N knight; N is used to avoid confusion with king.
For example, Qg5 means "queen moves to the g-file, 5th rank" that is, to the square g5.
Chess literature published in other languages may use different initials for pieces, or may be used pity, download chess game 3d for pc free shame! avoid language issues.
To resolve ambiguities, an additional letter or number is added to indicate the file or rank from which the piece moved e.
Ngf3 means "knight from the g-file moves to the square f3"; R1e2 means "rook on the first rank moves to e2".
The letter P for pawn is not used; so e4 means "pawn moves to the square e4".
If the piece makes a capture, "x" is inserted before the destination square.
Thus Bxf3 means "bishop captures on f3".
When a pawn makes a capture, the file from which the pawn departed is used in place of a piece initial, and ranks may be omitted if unambiguous.
For example, exd5 pawn on the e-file captures the piece on d5 or exd pawn on the e-file captures a piece somewhere on the d-file.
Particularly in Germany, some publications use ":" rather than "x" to indicate capture, but this is now rare.
Some publications omit the capture symbol altogether; so exd5 would be rendered simply as ed.
Castling is indicated by the special notations 0-0 for castling and 0-0-0 for castling.
An en passant capture is sometimes marked with the notation "e.
Checkmate can be indicated by " ".
At the end of the game, "1—0" means White won, "0—1" means Black won, and "½—½" indicates a draw.
Chess moves can be annotated with.
Qxf7 The text-based PGNwhich is understood by chess software, is based on short form English language algebraic notation.
Until about 1980, the majority of English language chess publications used a form of.
In descriptive notation, files are named according to the piece which occupies the back rank at the start of the game, and each square has two different names depending on whether it is from White's or Black's point of view.
For example, the square known as "e3" in algebraic notation is "K3" King's 3rd from White's point of view, and "K6" King's 6th from Black's point of view.
When recording captures, the captured piece is named rather than the square on which it is captured except to resolve ambiguities.
Thus, Scholar's mate is rendered in descriptive notation: 1.
QxBP mate A few players still prefer descriptive notation, but it is no longer recognized by FIDE.
Another system isrecognized by the though its use is in decline.
Squares are identified by numeric coordinates, for example a1 is "11" and h8 is "88".
Moves are described by the "from" and "to" squares, e.
Captures are not indicated.
Castling is described by the king's move only; e.
Stages Opening Main article: A chess opening is the group of initial moves of a game the "opening moves".
Recognized sequences of opening moves are referred to as openings and have been given names such as the or.
They are catalogued in reference works such as the.
There are dozens of different openings, varying widely in character from quiet for example, the to very aggressive the.
In some opening lines, the exact sequence considered best for both sides has been worked out to more than 30 moves.
Professional players spend years studying openings and continue doing so throughout their careers, as continues to evolve.
A correctly timed castling can often enhance this.
Most players and consider that White, by virtue of the first move.
This initially gives White the.
Black usually strives to neutralize White's advantage and achieveor to develop in an unbalanced position.
Middlegame Main article: The middlegame is the part of the game which starts after the opening.
There is no clear line between the opening and the middlegame, but typically the middlegame will start when most pieces have been developed.
Similarly, there is no clear transition from the middlegame to the endgame; see.
Because the opening theory has ended, players have to form plans based on the features of the position, and at the same time take into account the tactical possibilities of the position.
The middlegame is the phase in which most occur.
Combinations are a series of tactical moves executed to achieve some gain.
Middlegame combinations are often connected with an attack against the opponent's king.
Some typical patterns have their own names; for example, the or the combination.
Specific plans or strategic themes will often arise from particular groups of openings which result in a specific type of pawn structure.
An example is thewhich is the attack of queenside pawns against an opponent who has more pawns on the queenside.
The study of openings is therefore connected to the preparation of plans that are typical of the resulting middlegames.
Another important strategic question in the middlegame is whether and how to reduce material and transition into an endgame i.
Minor material advantages can generally be transformed into victory only in an endgame, and therefore the stronger side must choose an appropriate way to achieve an ending.
Not every reduction of material is good for this purpose; for example, if one side keeps a light-squared bishop and the opponent has a dark-squared one, the transformation into a ending is usually advantageous for the weaker side only, because an endgame with is likely to be a draw, even with an advantage of a pawn, or sometimes even with a two-pawn advantage.
Endgame The side having to move is disadvantaged.
The endgame also end game or ending is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board.
Endgames often revolve around endeavors to a pawn by advancing it to the furthest.
It is often brought to the where it can protect its own pawns, attack enemy pawns, and hinder moves of the opponent's king.
In the example diagram, either side having the move is in zugzwang: Black to move must play 1.
Kb7 allowing White to promote the pawn after 2.
Kd7; White to move must permit a draw, either by 1.
Kc6 or by losing the pawn after any other legal move.
Endgames can be classified according to the type of pieces remaining on the board.
For example, involve only kings and pawns on one or both sides, and the task of the stronger side is to promote one of the pawns.
Other more complicated endings are classified according to pieces on the board other than kings, such as "" endgames.
Strategy and tactics Chess strategy consists of setting and achieving long-term positioning advantages during the game — for example, where to place different pieces — while tactics concentrate on immediate maneuver.
These two aspects of the gameplay cannot be completely separated, because strategic goals are mostly achieved through tactics, while the tactical opportunities are based on the previous strategy of play.
A game of chess is normally divided into three phases: thetypically the first 10 moves, when players move their pieces to useful positions for the coming battle; the ; and last thewhen most of the pieces click to see more gone, kings typically take a more active part in the struggle, and pawn promotion is often decisive.
Fundamentals of tactics 23.
Qh7 In chess, tactics in general concentrate on short-term actions — so short-term that they can be calculated in advance by a human player or by a computer.
The possible depth of calculation depends on the player's ability.
In quiet positions with many possibilities on both sides, a deep calculation is more difficult and may not be practical, while in "tactical" positions with a limited number of forced variations, strong players can calculate long sequences of moves.
Simple one-move or two-move tactical actions — threats, exchanges ofand double attacks — can be combined into more complicatedsequences of tactical maneuvers that are often forced from the point of view of one or both players.
Theoreticians describe many elementary tactical methods and typical maneuvers; for example,, especially chess games big bang checks,,and.
A forced variation that involves a sacrifice and usually results in a tangible gain is called a.
Brilliant combinations — such as those in the — are considered beautiful and are admired by chess lovers.
A common type of chess exercise, aimed at developing players' skills, is a position where a decisive combination is available and challenging them to find it.
Fundamentals of strategy Main article: Chess strategy is concerned with evaluation of chess positions and with setting up goals and long-term plans for the future play.
During the evaluation, players must take into account numerous factors such as the value of the pieces on the board, control of the center and centralization, theking safety, and the control of key squares or groups of squares for example, diagonals, open files, and dark or light squares.
The most basic step in evaluating a position is to count the of both sides.
The point values used for this purpose are based on experience; usually pawns are considered worth one point, knights rules how to game of chess bishops about three points each, rooks about five points the value difference between a rook and a bishop or knight being known asand queens about nine points.
The king is more valuable than all of the other pieces combined, since its checkmate loses the game.
But in practical terms, in the endgame the king as a fighting piece is generally more powerful than a bishop or knight but less powerful than a rook.
These basic values are then modified by other factors like position of the piece e.
Example of underlying pawn structure.
Since pawns are the least mobile of the pieces, the pawn structure is relatively static and largely determines the strategic nature of the position.
Weaknesses in the pawn structure, such as, or andonce created, are often permanent.
Care must therefore be taken to avoid these weaknesses unless they are compensated by another valuable asset for example, by the possibility of developing an attack.
Competitive play Organization of competitions Contemporary chess is an organized sport with structured international and national leagues, tournaments, and.
Chess's international governing body is Fédération Internationale des Échecs.
Most countries have a national chess organization as well such as the and which in turn is a member of FIDE.
FIDE source a member of thebut the game of chess has never been part of the ; chess does have its ownheld every two years as a team event.
Former world champion left playing against his predecessor The current World Chess Champion is of Norway.
The reigning Women's World Champion is from China.
The world's highest rated female player,has never participated in theinstead preferring to compete with find chess games position leading men and maintaining a ranking among the top male players.
Other competitions for individuals include thetheand the.
Invitation-only tournaments regularly attract the world's strongest players.
Examples include Spain's event, Monte Carlo's tournament, the meeting, Sofia'sand Wijk aan Zee's tournament.
Regular team chess events include the and the.
The and World Championships include both team and individual events.
Besides these prestigious competitions, there are thousands of other chess tournaments, matches, and festivals held around the world every year catering to chess game online free play board of all levels.
Chess is promoted as a "mind sport" by thealongside other such as, and.
Titles and rankingsformeris considered by many to be one of the.
Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain.
Before FIDE will confer the title on a player, the player must have an see below of at least 2500 at one time and three favorable results called norms in tournaments involving other grandmasters, including some from countries other than the applicant's.
There are other milestones a player can achieve to attain the title, such as winning the World Junior Championship.
The conditions are similar to GM, but less demanding.
The minimum rating for the IM title is 2400.
The usual way for a player to qualify for the FIDE Master title is online chess rating achieving a FIDE rating of 2300 or more.
Similar to FM, but with a FIDE rating of at least 2200.
All the titles are open to men and women.
Separate women-only titles, such as Woman Grandmaster WGMare available.
Beginning with in 1978, a number of women have earned the GM title, and most of the top ten women in 2006 hold the unrestricted GM title.
As of 2018there are 1725 active grandmasters and 3903 international masters in the world.
The top three countries with the largest numbers of grandmasters are Russia, the United States, and Germany, with 251, 98, and 96, respectively.
International titles are awarded to composers and solvers of chess problems and to correspondence chess players by the.
National chess organizations may also award titles, usually to the advanced players still under the level needed for international titles; an example is the title used in the United States.
In order to rank players, FIDE,and national chess organizations use the developed by.
Elo is a based on the assumption that the chess performance of each player in his or her games is a random variable.
Arpad Elo thought of a player's true skill as the average of that player's performance random variable, and showed how to estimate the average from results of player's games.
The implemented Elo's suggestions in 1960, and the system quickly gained recognition as being both fairer and more accurate than older systems; it was adopted by FIDE in 1970.
A beginner or casual player typically has an Elo rating of less than 1000; an ordinary club player has a rating of about 1500, a strong club player about 2000, a grandmaster usually has a rating of over 2500, and an elite player has a rating of over 2700.
The highest FIDE rating of all time, 2881, was achieved by on the March 2014 FIDE rating list.
Composition Main article: Chess composition is the art of creating chess problems also called chess compositions.
The creator is known as a.
These are often referred to as "mate in n" — for example "mate in three" a three-mover ; two- and three-move problems are the most common.
These usually involve positions that would be highly unlikely to occur in an actual game, and are intended to illustrate a particularusually requiring a surprising or counter-intuitive move.
Almost all studies are positions.
Chess composition is a distinct branch of chess sport, and tournaments exist for both the composition and solving of chess problems.
Example White to move and draw This is one of the most famous chess studies; it was published by 4 December 1921.
It seems impossible to catch the advanced black pawn, while the black king can easily stop the white pawn.
The solution is a advance, which brings the king to both pawns simultaneously: 1.
Ke7 and the white king can support its pawn.
Ke5 Now the white king comes just in time to support his pawn, or catch the black one.
Kf4 and White will capture the pawn.
Kd6 Both sides will queen, resulting in a draw.
Publications Main articles:, and Chess has a very extensive literature.
In 1913, the chess historian estimated the total number of books, magazines, and to be about 5,000.
No one knows how many have been printed.
GM owned the world's largest private collection of chess books and memorabilia.
David DeLucia's chess library contains 7,000 to 8,000 chess books, a similar number of autographs letters, score sheets, manuscriptsand about 1,000 items of "ephemera".
Mathematics and computers See also:,and The game structure and nature of chess are related to several branches of mathematics.
Many and problems connected to chess have been known for hundreds of years.
Combinatorics of chess and chess puzzles Mathematicians,and studied the.
The number of legal positions in chess is estimated to be about 10 43, and has been proved to be fewer than 10 47, with a of approximately 10 123.
The game-tree complexity of chess was first calculated by as 10 120, a number known as the.
An average position typically has thirty to forty possible moves, but there may be as few as zero in the case of checkmate or stalemate or in a constructed position as many as 218.
Chess has inspired many combinatorial puzzles, such as the and the.
Computer chess The idea of creating a chess-playing machine dates to the 18th century; around 1769, the chess-playing called became famous before being exposed as a.
Serious trials based on automata, such aswere too complex and limited to be useful.
Since the advent of the in the 1950s, chess enthusiasts, and computer scientists have built, with increasing degrees of seriousness and success, chess-playing machines and computer programs.
The groundbreaking paper on computer chess, "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess", was published in 1950 by Shannon.
He wrote: The chess machine is an ideal one to start with, since: 1 the problem is sharply defined both in allowed operations the moves and in the ultimate goal checkmate ; 2 it is neither so simple as to be trivial nor too difficult for satisfactory solution; 3 chess is generally considered to require "thinking" for skillful play; a solution of this problem will force us either to admit the possibility of a mechanized thinking or to further restrict our concept of "thinking"; 4 the discrete structure of chess fits well into the digital nature of modern computers.
Nowadays, chess programs compete in theheld annually since 1974.
At first considered only a curiosity, the best have become extremely strong.
In 1997, a computer won a chess match using classical time controls against a reigning World Champion for the first time: beat 3½—2½ it scored two wins, one loss, and three.
However, the match wasand computers would only win such a match again.
In 2009, a won a 6 tournament with a performance rating 2898: chess engine 13 running on the mobile phone won the Copa Mercosur tournament with nine wins and one draw.
The best chess programs are now able to consistently beat the strongest human players, to the extent that no longer attract interest from chess players or media.
With huge databases of past games and high analytical ability, computers can help players to learn chess and prepare for matches.
The presence of computers and modern communication tools have raised concerns regarding during games, most notably the "" during the 2006 World Championship.
Relation to game theory In 1913, used chess as a basis for his theory of game strategies, which is considered as one of the predecessors of.
According tohowever, there are 10 43 legal positions in chess, so it will take an impossibly long time to compute a perfect strategy with any feasible technology.
The 11-category, game theoretical taxonomy of chess includes: two player, no-chance, combinatorial, Markov state present state is all a player needs to move; although past state led up to that point, knowledge of the sequence of past moves is not required to make the next move, except to take into account of en passant and castling, which do depend on the past moveszero sum, symmetric, perfect information, non-cooperative, discrete, extensive form tree decisions, not payoff matricesand sequential.
Computational complexity Generalized chess played on n× n board, without the is.
Combinatorial game theory Some applications of to chess endgames were found by 1996.
Psychology A children's chess tournament in the United States There is an extensive scientific literature on chess psychology.
In his doctoral thesis, showed that chess masters can rapidly perceive the key features of a position.
According to de Groot, thismade possible by years of practice and study, is more important than the sheer ability to anticipate moves.
De Groot showed that chess masters can memorize positions shown for a few seconds almost perfectly.
The ability to memorize does not alone account for chess-playing skill, since masters and novices, when faced with random arrangements of chess pieces, had equivalent recall about six positions in each case.
Rather, it is the ability to recognize patterns, which are then memorized, which distinguished the skilled players from the novices.
When the positions of the pieces were taken from an actual game, the masters had almost total positional recall.
More recent research has focused on ; the respective roles of knowledge and look-ahead search; studies of chess masters and novices; ; the role of and in chess skill; gender differences; and computational models of chess expertise.
The role of practice and talent in the development of chess and other domains of expertise has led to much recent research.
Ericsson and colleagues have argued that deliberate practice is sufficient for reaching high levels of expertise in chess.
Recent research indicates that factors other than practice are also important.
For example, and colleagues have shown that stronger players started playing chess at a young age and that experts born in the Northern Hemisphere are more likely to have been born in late winter and early spring.
Compared to general population, chess players are more likely to be non-right-handed, though they found no correlation between handedness and skill.
Chess and intelligence A relationship between chess skill and intelligence has long been discussed in the literature and popular culture.
Academic studies of the relationship date back at least to 1927.
Academic opinion has long been split on how strong the relationship is, with some studies finding no relationship and others finding a relatively strong one.
A 2016 and review based on 19 studies and a total sample size of 1,779 found that various aspects of correlate with chess skill, with average correlations ranging from 0.
The review did not find strong evidence of biasing these estimates.
Variantslaunched in 1949, became popular in Eastern Europe, reaching half a million fans.
Three cell colors and three bishops per side are the norm for hexagonal variants.
One rules variant that has gained significantly in popularity is named "Fischerandom" by its inventor.
In Chess960, the starting position is from 960 unique possibilities, including the classic chess initial position without change, while the other 959 render the use of impracticable.
In 2008, FIDE added Chess960 to its Handbook.
Prime sources in English describing chess variants and their rules include 's encyclopedias, the website created by with various contributors, and the magazine Variant Chess published from 1990 George Jellis to 2010 the.
In the context of chess variants, regular i.
FIDE chess is commonly referred to as Western chess, international chess, orthodox chess, orthochess, and classic chess.
The Spanish "x" was pronounced as English "sh", as the Portuguese "x" still is today.
The spelling of ajedrez changed after.
Retrieved 20 July 2010.
Retrieved 29 November 2008.
This section is now classified under "Guidelines", indicating that the rules presented do not have the weight of FIDE law.
Retrieved 22 October 2017.
Consejo Superior de Deportes.
Archived from on 4 October 2015.
Retrieved 4 October 2015.
Retrieved 1 June 2017.
Retrieved 1 December 2009.
PDF from the original on 30 January 2016.
Retrieved 3 March 2015.
Retrieved 26 November 2008.
Retrieved 26 November 2008.
Retrieved 12 December 2010.
Retrieved 26 November 2008.
Archived from on 4 October 2003.
Retrieved 26 November 2008.
Retrieved 26 November 2008.
Archived from on 28 January 2006.
Retrieved 4 September 2010.
Retrieved 26 November 2008.
Retrieved 13 December 2007.
Archived from on 4 February 2014.
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Online at University of Oregon.
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London, 1900: David Nutt.
Archived from on 18 August 2000.
Retrieved 7 May 2010.
Retrieved 12 December 2006.
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Retrieved 26 November 2008.
Archived from on 30 December 2009.
Retrieved 30 December 2009.
Archived from PDF on 26 April 2006.
Retrieved 26 November 2008.
Retrieved 30 May 2015.
Retrieved 1 April 2019.
Retrieved 1 April 2019.
Retrieved 1 April 2019.
Retrieved 11 February 2016.
Retrieved 26 November 2008.
Retrieved 4 September 2010.
Archived from on 22 August 2008.
Retrieved 26 November 2008.
Retrieved 22 November 2013.
Retrieved 6 August 2014.
Retrieved 28 August 2010.
Retrieved 26 November 2008.
Retrieved 30 November 2018.
Retrieved 16 January 2013.
Retrieved on 11 January 2009.
In 1992, and stated that Schmid's chess library "is the largest and finest in private hands, with more than 15,000 items".
In 2008, stated that Schmid "has over 20,000 chess books".
Retrieved 3 March 2012.
Dirk Jan ten Geuzendam, "The Finest Chess Collection in the World",2010, No.
The title of the article refers to David DeLucia's collection, not Schmid's.
An Upper Bound for the Number of Reachable Positions.
Retrieved 5 December 2006.
Archived from on 13 June 2007.
Behind Deep Blue: Building the Computer that Defeated the World Chess Champion, Princeton University Press.
University of Southampton and King's College Cambridge.
Programming a Computer for Playing Chess.
Available online at PDF.
Archived from PDF on 15 March 2010.
Retrieved 30 November 2006.
Archived from on 30 September 2011.
Retrieved 4 September 2010.
The New York Times.
Retrieved 28 August 2010.
Cited from Eichhorn, Christoph: Der Beginn der Formalen Spieltheorie: Zermelo 191312 June 2007 at the.
Retrieved 23 March 2007.
Archived from on 7 June 2011.
Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology: Volume 8.
Machine Learning: An Algorithmic Perspective.
New York: Chapman and Hall.
A 31 : 199—214.
Games of No Chance, MSRI Publications.
Psychology of Intelligence Analysis Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency 1999 see free chess games installation September 2007 at the.
Archived from PDF on 12 May 2006.
Retrieved 21 March 2017.
PDF from the original on 18 July 2011.
PDF from the original on 8 August 2007.
Current Directions in Psychological Science.
The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants.
Retrieved 20 April 2017.
A; Joel David Hamkins 2013.
A; Joel David Hamkins; Norman Lewis Perlmutter 2015.
New Rules for Classic Games.
The form of chess most people know—which is sometimes referred to as Western chess, orthodox chess, or orthochess—is itself just one of many that have been played throughout history.
Power Play: The Literature and Politics of Chess in the Late Middle Ages.
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Psychologie des grands calculateurs et joueurs d'échecs in French.
Chess History and Reminiscences.
chess download 7 windows for free email games Mammoth Book of Chess.
The Mammoth Book of the World's Greatest Chess Games 2nd ed.
A Short History of Chess.
Thought and Choice in Chess English ed.
Perception and Memory in Chess: Heuristics of the Professional Eye.
Assen, NL: Van Gorcum.
World Cultures Through Art Activities.
Englewood, CO: Teachers Ideas Press.
New Ideas in Chess.
New York: Pitman 1984 edition.
Retrieved 12 December 2010.
Moves in Mind: The Psychology of Board Games.
Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
Better Chess for Average Players.
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The Kings of Chess.
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The Psychology of Chess Skill.
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How to Solve Chess Problems.
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Behind Deep Blue: Building the Computer that Defeated the World Chess Champion.
My Great Predecessors, part II.
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My Great Predecessors, part III.
London; Guilford, CT: Everyman Chess.
My Great Predecessors, part IV.
London; Guilford, CT: Everyman Chess.
My Great Predecessors, part V.
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Chess Players' Thinking: A Cognitive Psychological Approach.
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External links This audio file was created from a revision of the article " Chess" dated 2016-10-18, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article.
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You can perform a near-infinite variety of game searches in ChessBase 8, but these can be divided into a few general categories. One of the most common of these (especially for correspondence chessplayers) is a position search, in which you search a database for a specific board position. The second.


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Chess Game Database Shortcomings of classical Chess Game Databases The first generation of chess databases has been developed to manage chess games — those of the user and of course millions of other chess players.
The shortcoming of this old approach becomes clear as soon as you start to work with deeply nested variations within find chess games position single chess game or one game per main variation.
Certainly this is not an intuitive download chess game for free windows 7 />The overview is find chess games position lost and the management not efficient.
Advantages of a Position Database Unlike classical game databases in a position database as Chess Position Trainer uses only positions and candidate moves are stored — absolutely independent of concrete, played games.
In this regard position databases are similar to an editable opening book.
The presentation of all possible moves for each position is much more concise than in a game database.
In a separate window you can see all considered moves called candidate moves for the current position and easily edit them.
The concept of candidate moves is used in this context.
One major advantage of a position database is the detection of any transposition even between openings which is otherwise very hard to find.
The program plays the opposite side and you have to find your pre-defined candidate move.
Finally, the applied time-proven let you study your repertoire in a very efficient way.
It is a thing of the future, for sure.

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Chessgames.com is an online database of chess games. Our easy interface allows you to search a vast library of historic chess games for educational and entertainment purposes. It is an excellent tool for intermediate and advanced players, and even the novice will find much value in seeing how the world's best players play the game.


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Chess Analysis: 7 Most Important Factors in Chess Position Analysis. Many other materials & lessons that will help you to learn or improve the skills of the game of chess.


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How to Improve the Position of Your Pieces in a Chess Game. Do you find yourself wondering what to do in a chess game? When there's nothing obvious, like a piece you can capture, or a checkmate, what do you do when it's your move?


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Chess Strategy: How to Evaluate Positions - Part 1!

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Chess Part of a Staunton chess set Left to right: white king, black rook, black queen, white pawn, black knight, white bishop Years active c. 6th-century to present Genre(s) Board game Abstract strategy game Mind sport Players 2 Playing time Casual games usually last 10 to 60 minutes; tournament games last anywhere from about ten minutes (fast chess) to six hours or more. Random chance None.


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- Consult a huge number of games by top chess grandmasters - see what others did in your position - Find the answer to any chess problems you encounter IMPORT CHESS GAMES - Import games using the popular PGN format - Use iTunes Filesharing to sync PGN files to your device - Save games to your device and analyse them wherever and whenever you like


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Positions with Opposite Side Castling

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bdshahab, setting up unrealistic positions is allowed, which I also find irritating. For example, you could set up a position with 6 white pawns on the a-line (from a2 to a7), which is probably impossible to reach in a normal chess game, even with help-moves.


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How to get Fritz13 to explain all the moves in a chess position A typical chess position can contain a couple of dozen (or more!) legal moves, and a beginning player often can become overwhelmed by the possibilities, neither knowing nor understanding the point of a particular candidate move.


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Ron Weasley Sacrifices Himself for the Team

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For registered users we store additional information such as profile data, chess games played, your chess analysis sessions, forum posts, chat and messages, your friends and blocked users, and items and subscriptions you have purchased. You can find this information in your personal profile.


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How to Set Up the Board

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The best 3D Chess game is here! Play Chess in immersive 3D graphics. Challenge your friends to matches or play against the AI players in the best chess game. Real Chess 3D is one of the most realistic and enjoyable chess games available on mobile.


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Chess Part of a Staunton chess set Left to right: white king, black rook, black queen, white pawn, black knight, white bishop Years active c. 6th-century to present Genre(s) Board game Abstract strategy game Mind sport Players 2 Playing time Casual games usually last 10 to 60 minutes; tournament games last anywhere from about ten minutes (fast chess) to six hours or more. Random chance None.


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find chess games position